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In the mouth the food is thoroughly chewed and then swallowed a second time, passing not into the paunch, but into the psaltcriuin or " manyplies." From the " many- plies " a wide aperture leads into the abomasusn or fourth stomach, where the gastric juice is secreted, and digestion completed.

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Here it remains soaking for some time, and is then passed into the rcticnhiin or " honey-comb " bag, where it is made into little balls or pellets which are returned to the mouth by a reverse action of the muscles.

This regurgitation is effected as follows : the stomach is divided into compartments, of which the largest, lying to the left, is called the riiini H or " paunch," and receives the food.

Such fossil remains are especially abundant in America. When Columbus and the Spaniards landed, it was entirely unknown on this continent ; but in the earlier ages of the world's histor}^ horses of all kinds must have roamed over our plains.

Among these was the Protohippus, only two feet and a half high, with the lateral toes not externally developed, the Mcsohippus and Ancliitlicriiini, about the size of a sheep with three toes used ibr locomotion, but still unmistakably equine ; and in the deposits of Utah and Wyoming, species have been discovered about the size of a fox, with four toes in front and three behind.

In the ante- lope, the horns are compact, without cells ; in the goat, ox, and sheep they have cells which communicate with the nose.

Wallace remarks that the present distribution of the Ungulata is utterly unintelligible without reference to the numerous extinct forms of existing and allied lamilies ; he adds, that we have good evidence that their wide range over the globe is a comparatively recent phenomenon.

These form the genus Oroliippus, the oldest ancestral horse known.

America thus possesses a perfect series of forms which, begin- ning with this minute ancient type, is gradually modified by gaining increased size and increased speed, by concentration of the limb-bones, by elongation of the head and neck, by the canine teeth decreasing m size, and by the molars becoming larger and being coated with cement, till we at last come to animals hardly distinguishable, specifically, from the living horse v^ith which we are all acquainted.

The appearance of one of these herds as they sweep over the plains, and career around any intruder on their domain, is best described in the well-known lines of the poet Byron : THE WILD HORSE.

4II "A trampling troop: I see them come In one vast squadron they advance! The steeds rush on in plunging pride, But where are they the reins who guide? With flowing tail and flying mane, Wide nostrils — never stretch'd by pain- Mouths bloodless to the bit or rein, And feet that iron never shod. They stop — they start — they snuf T the air, Gallop a moment here and there.

Be- tween the canines and the molars there is a space where the bit is placed, an arrangement by which alone man has been able to subdue these vigorous animals. The Horse, Equus caballus (I'late XXXI), the noble companion of man in the battle and the chase, in the labors of agriculture and com- merce, is distinguished by the uniformity of his color, and by his tail being ornamented with long hair throughout its entire length.